Comments

Revised Common Lectionary Commentary

Clippings: Ash Wednesday - March 5, 2014



Saint Dominic contemplating the Scriptures Saint Dominic contemplating the Scriptures
Author's note:
Sometimes I have material left over when I edit Comments down to fit the available space. This page presents notes that landed on the clipping room floor. Some may be useful to you. While I avoid technical language in the Comments (or explain special terms), Clippings may have unexplained jargon from time to time.

A hypertext Glossary of Terms is integrated with Clippings. Simply click on any highlighted word in the text and a pop-up window will appear with a definition. Bibliographic references are also integrated in the same way.

Joel 2:1-2,12-17

A minority of scholars see Joel as living during the reign of Joash (837-800 BC). The majority see the book as post--exilic but vary as to whether it is early or late. Some of the arguments for dating this book are:

  • Many classes of people are mentioned in the book but nowhere is a king or royal court mentioned. In a time of emergency, the king represented the people before God. So Joel was written when there was no longer a monarchy.
  • Despite the fact that the Babylonians ended the kingdom of David and destroyed the Temple (in 587 BC), they and their rulers are not mentioned. So Judah had already been conquered by the Persians (539 BC) at the time of writing.
  • The Temple plays an important role in the book. So, if there was no longer a king, the book must have been written after the Temple was rebuilt, i.e. after 515 BC.
  • Both Tyre and Sidon are mentioned as existing. Tyre was destroyed in 332 BC and Sidon in 343 BC. So the book was written before 343 BC. [ NJBC]

Joel takes the characteristic forms of classical prophecy and expands their apocalyptic and liturgical dimensions. [ NOAB]

Joel uses the catastrophe of the plague of locusts as a dire warning. He goes on to depict the advent of the day of Yahweh and its final judgements and blessings (see 2:28-3:21)

A large swarm of locusts in the area in 1915 came from the northeast. [ NJBC] Plagues of locusts do occur today in Ethiopia. In Exodus 10:13, the locusts come to Egypt from the east. [ CAB]

1:1: The prophet’s inspiration and authority are not self--generated, but come from God, whose will is disclosed through the prophet, whose personal agent he is and whom alone he must obey. See also Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1; Zephaniah 1:1; Haggai 1:1; Zechariah 1:1 for other such declarations. [ NOAB]

1:8ff: The priests are to mourn like young widows – implying that God has been husband to Judah. [ NJBC]

1:10: “the ground mourns”: The earth itself mourns. [ NJBC]

1:12: “people”: The Hebrew word is adam. [ NJBC]

1:13: “sackcloth”: A traditional sign of mourning. [ NJBC]

1:13: “Grain offering and drink offering are withheld from the house of your God”: The main point of contact with God has been eliminated.

1:15-20: The approach of the day of Yahweh is often pictured as God’s anger against his opponents. At times, it is his anger against Israel’s enemies, but it comes to be directed against Israel. See also Isaiah 2:5-22; Amos 5:18-25; Lamentations 1:12; Jeremiah 46:10 (“That day is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of retribution, to gain vindication from his foes ...”); Ezekiel 39:8. [ CAB]

1:19: “fire ... flames”: Signs of the destruction being from God: see Zephaniah 1:14-18.

2:1: “trumpet”: See also Hosea 5:8; Amos 3:6; Zephaniah 1:16; Revelation 8:6-13. [ NOAB]

2:2: “blackness”: The Hebrew is obscure. Some scholars argue for the Hebrew word being one which translates as dawn. [ NJBC]

2:3: “Before them ...”: Joel reverses the imagery of Isaiah 51:3: “For the Lord will comfort Zion; he will comfort all her waste places, and will make her wilderness like Eden, her desert like the garden of the Lord; joy and gladness will be found in her, thanksgiving and the voice of song”. [ NJBC]

2:4-9: The locusts approach with the relentless and devastating force of a powerful army. See also 2:25 and Revelation 9:7-10. [ NOAB]

2:6: Foretelling the destruction of Nineveh, Nahum 2:10 says “Devastation, desolation, and destruction! Hearts faint and knees tremble, all loins quake, all faces grow pale!”. [ NOAB]

2:10: At the time of divine visitation, the sun, moon and stars will refuse to shine: Amos 8:9 says: “On that day, says the Lord God, I will make the sun go down at noon, and darken the earth in broad daylight”. [ NOAB]

2:12: “fasting ... weeping ... mourning”: Acts of penance. [ CAB]

2:13: “rend your hearts”: The heart was thought to be the seat of intelligence and will. This verse is rooted in Israel’s ancient formulations of faith: see Exodus 34:6; Nehemiah 9:17, 31; Psalm 86:15. [ NJBC]

2:14: “blessing”: To Joel, temple offerings are a blessing. [ NOAB]

2:16: “Let the bridegroom ...”: Even preparations for the marriage ceremony should be put off. [ NJBC]

2:17: “Between the vestibule and the altar”: i.e. in the inner court of the Temple. The “altar” is that of burnt offering: see 2 Chronicles 4:1. [ NOAB]

2:18: “jealous”: The Hebrew word includes the notion of zealous. Deuteronomy 4:24 says: “... the Lord your God is a devouring fire, a jealous God”. [ NOAB]

2:20: “northern army”: The north was the traditional direction for trouble, so much so that to be called a northerner was to be considered a troublemaker. [ NJBC] There may also be an allusion to the invading armies of Babylon and Assyria. [ CAB] See also Jeremiah 1:13-16; 4:6 (“... I am bringing evil from the north, and a great destruction”). [ NJBC]

2:20: “eastern sea”: Most likely the Dead Sea [ NOAB], but possibly the Persian Gulf.

2:20: “western sea”: The Mediterranean. [ NOAB]

2:20: “its stench and foul smell”: The smell of the rotting carcases was noted in the 1915 plague. [ NJBC]

2:23: “early rain”: The text is obscure. NJBC says that “early rain” could be teacher: the words in Hebrew are sufficiently similar. Whether or not this is the case, rain, justice and teaching are connected in Isaiah 30:19-26; 1 Kings 8:35-36; 2 Chronicles 6:26-27.

In the Qumran literature, there is a figure called the Teacher of Righteousness : see, for example, CD (Damascus Document) 1:5-12; 1QpHab (*Pesher on Habakkuk) 1:13; 5:10. But the expression here is not exactly the same as at Qumran.(The word translated “vindication” can also be translated as righteousness.)

The light Palestinian plow was unable to penetrate the hard, parched earth, so the early rains were critical to agriculture.

2:27: By God’s gift of abundance, the Lord’s people will know that he alone is their god (see Isaiah 45:4, 5, 18; Ezekiel 36:11; 39:28) and dwells in their midst (see 3:17, 21). [ NOAB]

2:28: “all flesh”: To Joel, this means primarily Jews, including those who have returned from exile: see 3:2, 17, 19-20; Ezekiel 39:29. For Peter at Pentecost, it includes all nations: see Acts 2:17. [ NOAB]

2:31: “blood”: i.e. red. [ NOAB]

2:31: “the great and terrible day”: In the New Testament, see Mark 13:24 (where Jesus says: “ in those days, after that suffering, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light”) and Revelation 6:12. [ NOAB]

2:32: Those who worship the Lord (see Genesis 4:26; 12:8; Psalm 116:13) will be delivered (see Acts 2:21 and Romans 10:13). [ NOAB]

2:32: “for in Mount Zion ... escape”: The same phrase is found in Obadiah 17.

Isaiah 58:1-12

See also Micah 6:6-8 and James 1:27. [ NOAB]

During and after the Exile, days of fasting multiplied: see Zechariah 7:1-5; 8:18-19 and Joel. Eventually one great day of fasting was placed on Yom Kippur.

Verse 1: “trumpet”: Used to announce a fast day: see Joel 2:15 and Ezekiel 33:3. [ NOAB]

Verse 3: “fast”: See also Leviticus 23:26-32 (the commandment regarding the keeping of the Day of Atonement) and Jeremiah 36:9. [ NOAB]

Verse 3: “oppress all your workers”: In Exodus 3:7, this refers to Egyptian slave masters. [ NJBC]

Verse 7: In Matthew 25:31-46, the eschatological judgement depends on the kindly acts mentioned here. [ NJBC]

Verse 8: “light”: 42:6-7 says “I am the Lord , I have called you in righteousness, I have taken you by the hand and kept you; I have given you as a covenant to the people, a light to the nations, to open the eyes that are blind, to bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, from the prison those who sit in darkness”.

Verse 8: “rear guard”: 52:12 says that “the God of Israel will be your rear guard”. [ CAB]

Verse 9: “the pointing of the finger”: Proverbs 6:12-13 also speaks of “A scoundrel and a villain goes around ... pointing the fingers”. [ NOAB]

Verse 12: “Your ancient ruins”: The Temple was rebuilt in 515 BC: see Ezra 6:16; the walls were rebuilt in 445 BC: see Nehemiah 6:15. [ JBC]

Verses 13-14: Strict observance of the Sabbath was increasingly emphasized in post--exilic Judaism: see also 56:2 and Matthew 12:1-8. [ NOAB] Associating the Sabbath with concern for the poor explains the addition of these verses.

Verse 14: This verse repeats the liturgical refrains found in Deuteronomy 32:13; Habakkuk 3:10, 19 and Amos 4:13.

Verse 14: “for the mouth of the Lord has spoken”: This repeats 40:5. [ NJBC]

Psalm 51:1-17

Superscription: “A Psalm of David, when the prophet Nathan came to him, after he had gone into Bathsheba”: While the psalm itself nowhere refers to the story of David and Bathsheba, [ CAB] it fits the mood that David might well have been in, having been caught red--handed.

Although v. 8 makes it clear that the psalmist’s problem is one of illness, the main emphasis is upon restoration to moral, rather than merely physical, health. [ NOAB]

Verse 1: “Have mercy on me”: Psalms 56 and 57 also begin with these words. [ NJBC]

Verse 1: “steadfast love ... abundant mercy”: See also 69:13, 16; Isaiah 63:7; Lamentations 3:32, Nehemiah 13:22.

Verse 1: “blot out ...”: This recurs in v. 9

Verse 5: “born guilty”: See also Psalm 58:3 and Isaiah 48:8. The psalmist confesses to having had a sinful nature even from the moment of conception. [ NOAB] The notion of lifelong sinfulness is also found in Genesis 8:21: “... for the inclination of the human heart is evil from youth” (although the psalmist may simply be confessing that he has been thoroughly sinful).

Verses 6-12: Renewed prayer for deliverance. [ NOAB]

Verse 7: “Purge me with hyssop” : This may refer to some ceremony of sprinkling of blood or water, using branches or a bush. The reference may be metaphorical. See Exodus 12:22, Leviticus 14:51. NOAB sees it as definitely metaphorical.

Verse 10: “Create”: In Hebrew, bara, the same word used in Genesis 1:1. Creating is an action proper to God; only he can do the purification. [ JBC]

Verse 10: “clean heart”: Literally fidelity in that which is secret, i.e. the depths of his being.

Verse 10: “right spirit”: God’s action in humans which saves them and keeps them faithful. Ezekiel speaks of a new heart and a new spirit (see Ezekiel 11:19, 36:27). Jeremiah also speaks of a new spirit (and a new covenant) in Jeremiah 24:7, 31:33.

Verses 13-17: The psalmist says: when you give me your joy, I will instruct (proclaim my experience publicly and this lead sinners back to God) and praise God – rather than offer sacrifice in thanksgiving. [ NOAB]

Verses 18-19: NOAB believes that this psalm may date from David’s time, and that these verses was added later to modify the anti--sacrificial spirit of vv. 13-17 and to adapt the psalm to liturgical use.

Psalm 103:8-18

This might be classified as a hymn, but vv. 1-5 suggest that the words, though general, are intended to express the emotion of a particular individual on a specific occasion. [ NOAB]

This is a psalm of thanksgiving, of deep religious sensitivity, but it can also be seen as a hymn of praise. [ JBC]

Verses 1-2: See 104:1 for another hymn--like exhortation to one’s self. [ JBC]

Verse 3: For the association of the forgiveness of sin with healing of physical illness in the New Testament, see Mark 2:10-11. The association of sin with illness is found in both the Old Testament (see Job; Psalms 32:3-5; 107:17) and the New Testament (see John 9 and James 5:14-16). [ NJBC]

Verse 3: “heals all your diseases”: An allusion to Exodus 34:9. [ NOAB]

Verse 4: “the Pit”: This is a synonym for Sheol, the place of the dead where people retain only the faintest semblance of life. See also Job 17:13-14; 33:22, 24, 28-30. [ NOAB]

Verse 5: “satisfies”: NJBC offers fills your lifetime with.

Verse 5: “good”: This may refer to God’s benefits in general or more specifically to the divine presence as it does in Exodus 33:19. [ NJBC]

Verse 5: “the eagle’s”: The vigour of the eagle was proverbial: Isaiah 40:31 says: “those who wait for the Lord shall renew their strength, they shall mount up with wings like eagles, they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and not faint”. [ NOAB]

Verse 7: In Exodus 33:13, Moses says: “Now if I have found favour in your sight, show me your ways, so that I may know you and find favour in your sight. Consider too that this nation is your people”. [ NOAB]

Verse 8: This is a quotation from Exodus 34:6.

Verses 10-13: These verses immediately follow the quotation of Exodus 34:6 and provide a commentary on it. [ NJBC]

Verses 11-16: For similar comparisons, see Isaiah 55:8-19. [ JBC]

Verses 15-16: This is either an allusion to Isaiah 40:6-8 or an independent appearance of a common motif. See also 90:5-6; Job 14:2; Isaiah 51:12. [ NJBC]

Verses 19-22: The conclusion, in hymnic style. [ JBC]

Verse 21: “all his hosts”: i.e. the divine council, the army of heaven, indeed all in heaven. They are to join in praising God enthroned in heaven. [ NJBC]

2 Corinthians 5:20b-6:10

5:16: “from a human point of view”: For the by worldly standards interpretation, see also 1 Corinthians 1:26. Another interpretation is: humanity in its weakness, temporality and inclination for self--seeking: see Romans 8:4-5, 12; Galatians 4:23, 29. [ CAB]

5:17: “anyone is in Christ”: For the believing community as Christ, see also 1 Corinthians 6:15; 8:12; 12:12. [ NJBC]

5:17: “there is”: This is not in the Greek, but is supplied to make sense. [ NJBC]

5:17: “a new creation”: In apocalyptic Judaism (see 1 Enoch 72:1-2; 2 Baruch 32:6; Jubilees 4:26; 1QS 4:25) a new creation inaugurated the end--times. 1QS (Qumran Rule of the Community) 4:25 says: “For God has sorted them into equal parts until the appointed end and the new creation. ...” [ Martinez].

5:18: “reconciled”: Paul writes in Romans 5:10: “... while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son ...”. See also Colossians 1:20. [ CAB]

5:19: “reconciliation”: It restores us to authenticity.

5:20: “entreat”: Beg is another translation.

5:21: This verse expands on vv. 18-19. [ NJBC]

5:21: “he made ... no sin”: As Messiah (see Isaiah 53:9 and Psalms of Solomon 17:40-43), Christ was acknowledged as sinless (see Hebrews 4:15; 1 Peter 2:22; John 8:46; 1 John 3:5), yet through God’s choice (see Romans 8:3), he came to stand in that relationship to God which normally is the result of sin; he became part of sinful humanity. [ NJBC]

5:21: “to be sin”: Perhaps to be sin offering. Romans 8:3 says, in part, “in the likeness of sinful flesh, and to deal with sin”; Isaiah 53:10 speaks of “an offering for sin”. [ NOAB]

6:1: “we”: See also 1 Corinthians 3:9; 1 Thessalonians 3:2; Acts 19:1. [ NJBC]

6:1: Human cooperation is essential if the power of the gospel is to act effectively. In 1 Corinthians 15:10, Paul says: “But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace toward me has not been in vain”. The word translated “in vain” is kenos, meaning (in Paul’s usage) non--productive. [ NJBC] Note also 1 Corinthians 1:17: “For Christ did not send me to baptise but to proclaim the gospel ... so that the cross of Christ might not be emptied of its power”. Emptied here is kenou. (The REB translates this clause lest the cross of Christ be robbed of its effect .) In 1 Corinthians 10:1-13, Paul says that being baptized and sharing in the Lord’s supper alone do not assure us of salvation: we also need to be productive (in spreading the good news).

6:2: “have listened” and “have helped” are in the prophetic perfect. Isaiah 49:8 is a verse in one of the Servant Songs. [ JBC]

6:3-7: Paul’s ministry is characterized not by success by human standards, but by hardship – and virtues which God bestows through his power at work through the apostles. [ CAB] Paul’s self--recommendation is the antithesis of that of his opponents ( 5:12); he stresses suffering ( 4:10-11) and internal attitudes, not external trappings of spiritual power. [ NJBC]

6:4: See 11:23-29. [ NOAB]

6:4-5: What Paul has endured. The words in Greek translated “afflictions” and “calamities” have similar meanings. V. 5a is a list of afflictions/calamities (not all of which are recorded in the New Testament):

  • “beatings” – with rods, a Roman punishment (see Acts 16:23), and stoning (see Acts 14:19)
  • “imprisonments” (see Acts 16:22-23)
  • “riots” – i.e. mob action (see Acts 14:5, 19; 17:5; 18:12; 19:23) [ JBC]
  • “hardships”:
    • “labours” – tiring work Paul has had to do to fulfill his basic needs, as a tentmaker (see 1 Thessalonians 2:9, 2 Thessalonians 3:8, Acts 18:3, 1 Corinthians 4:12)
    • “sleepless nights” – see 2 Corinthians 11:27 and 2 Thessalonians 3:8
    • “hunger” – he has had little to eat, because of his way of life [ JBC]

6:6-7: He has endured them through gifts of the Spirit:

  • “purity” – integrity, holiness of life
  • “knowledge” – of the gospel and how to apply it to concrete situations (see 1 Corinthians 14:6, Romans 15:14)
  • “patience” – acceptance of the shortcomings of others
  • “kindness” – his attitude towards those with shortcomings (see 1 Corinthians 9:19-22)
  • “holiness of spirit” – godliness
  • “truthful speech” – a quality his opponents definitely lack [ JBC]

He has received these gifts “in the power of God” – Paul’s success is from God, not himself: see 1 Corinthians 2:4, 2 Corinthians 2:17, 4:2. [ JBC]

6:9: “dying, and see – we are alive”: a summary of 4:7-5:10. [ NJBC]

6:10: “sorrowful”: Paul has refused help from the Christians at Corinth because “friends who came from Macedonia” had already helped him sufficiently (see 11:7-11). He did not wish to burden the Christians at Corinth with a request for support (see 12:14-18).

6:13: “children” : In 1 Corinthians 13:11, Paul says: “When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child; when I became an adult, I put an end to childish ways”.

2 Corinthians is a composite of several letters. In 7:2ff, Paul says that he has learnt through Titus that his letter (the one we are reading) has led his critics to a change of heart, that they desire to correct the problems in the community. They have developed obedience and a sense of awe, realizing what God is doing amongst them through the apostle and his aides.

Matthew 6:1-6,16-21

Verse 1: “piety”: The Greek word is dikaiosune, elsewhere translated as righteousness. [ BlkMt]

Verse 1: “your Father in heaven”: God in his majesty and transcendence. [ NOAB]

Verse 2: “hypocrites”: Originally the Greek word, hypokrites , was a theatrical term meaning actor, then one who played a part or acted a false role in public life. In 23:18 it refers to false interpreters of scripture, religious teachers who fail in their responsibility. [ NJBC]

Verse 2: “received their reward”: The Greek word, apecho , literally means paid in full. [ BlkMt]

Verse 4: According to BlkMt, this verse means avoid all scheming for human attention and praise; give filial obedience to God and with brotherly concern for those in need. It is also possible that it is hyperbole emphasizing that pious acts should be performed without public notice.

Verse 4: “will reward you”: Probably at the end of time. [ NOAB]

Verses 5-8: The positive teaching about prayer is that it should be sincere personal communication with God and be brief because it is for our good, not God’s, for he already knows what we need. [ NJBC]

Verse 5: “stand”: Standing was the usual posture for prayer; they appear to be very pious. [ BlkMt]

Verse 5: “Truly ... they have received their reward”: See also the parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector in Luke 18:10-14. [ NOAB]

Verse 6: For Jesus participating in public worship, see Mark 1:21. [ NJBC]

Verse 6: “go into your room”: To avoid temptation to impress others. [ BlkMt]

Verses 9-15: The parallel is Luke 11:2-4. There the model of prayer is given in a simpler form. There God is addressed intimately and affectionately as Father. [ CAB] Because the version of the Lord’s Prayer here is more formal than the one in Luke, NJBC suggests that Matthew added to the earliest form, the version in Luke.

The versions of the Lord’s Prayer are compared in the following table:

Matthew Luke
Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Father, hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come. Your kingdom come.
Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread. Give us each day our daily bread.
And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone indebted to us.
And do not bring us to the time of trial, And do not bring us to the time of trial.
but rescue us from the evil one.

Matthew’s form is closer to Jewish prayers, and Luke’s to other Christian prayers. The Lord’s Prayer is probably based on Jewish prayers.

The doxology For the kingdom, ... (For thine is the kingdom... ) was added in the early Church. It is based on David’s prayer in 1 Chronicles 29:11-13. It is found in some early manuscripts.

Verses 9-11: Three petitions concerning God’s glory. [ NOAB]

Verse 9: “Our Father in heaven”: This form of address suggests child--like trust. intimacy, and readiness of access. See also Romans 5:2; Ephesians 2:18; 3:12; Hebrews 10:17-20. [ NJBC]

Verse 9: “hallowed”: i.e. be held in reverence. [ BlkMt]

Verse 9: “your name”: i.e. as God has made himself known. [ BlkMt]

Verse 10: “Your kingdom come”: The prayer presupposes that the kingdom is not yet here in its fulness. [ NJBC]

Verse 10: “Your will be done”: God’s “will” is for peace and justice: see Romans 14:17. [ NJBC]

Verse 10: “on earth as it is in heaven”: This phrase belongs to each of the above petitions. [ NOAB] A certain analogy between heaven and earth, which is found in Plato and Babylonian ideas of the temple and the ziggurat. [ NJBC]

Verses 11-13: Three petitions concerning our needs. [ NOAB]

Verse 11: “bread”: The meaning may be:

Verse 11: “daily”: Various meanings of the rare Greek word have been proposed. There are four possible translations: tomorrow’s, daily, needful, or future. Perhaps all four are intended. [ NJBC]

Verse 12: “debts”: Debts is an Aramaic euphemism for sins. See also Mark 11:25. [ NJBC]

Verse 12: “as we also have forgiven our debtors”: We cannot ask for ourselves what we deny to others. [ NOAB]

Verse 13: “do not bring us to the time of trial”: Two interpretations are suggested:

  • Do not let us succumb to the end--time trial, and
  • Do no let us fall when we are tempted. [ NJBC]

See also 2 Thessalonians 3:3 and James 1:13. [ NJBC]

Verses 14-15: See also 18:35; Mark 11:25-26; Ephesians 4:32; Colossians 2:13. [ NOAB]

Verses 16-18: Isaiah 58:5 says: “Is such the fast that I choose, a day to humble oneself? Is it to bow down the head like a bulrush, and to lie in sackcloth and ashes? Will you call this a fast, a day acceptable to the Lord? Is not this the fast that I choose: to loose the bonds of injustice, to undo the thongs of the yoke, to let the oppressed go free, and to break every yoke?”. Especially pious Jews fasted twice a week (as did Christians). In the parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector, the Pharisee says: “I fast twice a week”. [ NOAB]

Verse 16: “fast”: Fasting was understood as: humbling oneself before God (see Isaiah 58:3-9), strengthening prayer (see Tobit 12:8 and 2 Chronicles 30:3) as related to almsgiving, and as an expression of mourning (see 9:14-15). In Mark 2:18-20 and Matthew 9:14-15, Jesus tells the disciples not to fast during his lifetime, but fasting will be acceptable after his departure. Jews do not have a season of fasting like Lent, but they do observe a few days of communal fasting, especially Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, and the ninth day of the month Ab. [ NJBC]

Verse 16: “disfigure their faces ... show”: The Greek words are similar, so there is word--play here. [ NJBC]

Verse 19ff: General instructions for the faithful community continue up to 7:27. [ CAB]

Verses19-21: See also Luke 12:33-34 [ CAB] and James 5:2-3. [ NOAB]

Verse 19: “rust”: Iron implements may be in view; however the Greek word can also mean worm. Worms also invaded clothing. [ BlkMt]

Verse 20: “treasures in heaven”: i.e. God’s gifts in recognition of obedience and fidelity. [ CAB]

Verse 21: “heart”: The heart was considered to be the seat of will rather than of emotion.

[an error occurred while processing this directive]


Web page maintained by

Christ Church Cathedral
© 1996-2014
Last Updated: 20140225

Click on a button below to move to another page in the site.
If you are already on that page, you will be taken to the top.

October 26
All Saints' Day
November 2
November 9
Remembrance Sunday